Water hammer in heat exchangers
Water hammer inside heat exchange equipment, like water hammer in steam distribution lines, is often the result of accumulation and stagnation of condensate. For example, consider the operation of a shell-and-tube heat exchanger . When the heat load on the equipment decreases (due to a decrease in the amount of heated product or an increase in its temperature), by reducing the steam supply, the pressure difference between the inlet and outlet of the steam trap decreases and condensate begins to accumulate inside the heat exchanger. This phenomenon is known as "condensation stagnation". When steam is reintroduced into a flooded heat exchanger, it instantly condenses and a water hammer is formed. In most cases, the force of a water hammer in a heat exchanger is less than in a steam line, but its prolonged effect leads to "fatigue" of the metal, followed by its destruction and failure of the heat exchanger.
Deformation of the tube bundle under the influence of water hammer
The main reasons for stagnant condensate in heat exchangers:
Incorrect hardware installation
High back pressure in the condensate line
To prevent flooding of heat exchangers, it is most effective to use Yoshitake pumping steam traps.