Purpose of storage tanks. Spheres of application.
An accumulator in any technical systems is a device for accumulating and preserving any energy or material resource, for organizing its ordered expenditure in terms of time, quantity and purpose. The main task of using accumulating devices is to smooth out irregularities (inconsistencies) in the rate of reproduction of a material or energy resource, and its consumption. Both the peak excess of the resource reproduction over the rate of its consumption and the peak value of the resource consumption over the rate of its reproduction are subject to smoothing by means of an accumulating device.
In water supply and heating systems for various purposes, such a material and energy resource (for accumulation) is, in fact, water (heat carrier), and its technologically achieved operating temperature: high (hot water) or, conversely, low (chilled, ice water).
Accumulation in reserve (accumulation) of water as a material resource for water supply systems for various purposes is practiced in order to smooth out the unevenness of its mass flow (injection) and consumption as a whole throughout the system. With small volumes of water consumption, buffer capacitive equipment is used as accumulating tanks (heat accumulators) (with large volumes of consumption - accumulating reservoirs). Typical examples of storage (buffer) storage equipment are underground and aboveground water tanks, as well as water tanks.
An example of switching on an OPEKS-2 storage tank in a solid fuel boiler room circuit.
If it is necessary to accumulate and preserve water as a heating medium or refrigerant, together with a technologically acquired high or low temperature, special heat-insulated water tanks are used - heat accumulators . The main areas of application of water heat accumulators are systems:
- water heating;
- hot water supply;
- for storing ice water (1-5 C)
- technological water heating or cooling.
In such systems, capacitive heat accumulators perform the tasks of accumulating and storing hot water (as an option, ice water - in water cooling systems), to ensure peak volumes of its consumption, under conditions of limited performance of the heating (or cooling) coolant system.
In addition to the presence of peak loads in the consumption of hot coolant (which exceeds the performance of the heating system), the need for a capacitive heat accumulator can also be caused by the uneven operation of the heating system. This situation is especially typical for some alternative sources of thermal energy, such as solar systems, the performance of which largely depends on the time of day and weather conditions. In this case, on the contrary, the performance of the heat carrier heating system should significantly exceed the volume of its current consumption, and the heat accumulator performs the task of maintaining the volumes of the heated heat carrier and maintaining the volume of its consumption throughout the entire time when the heating system is inoperative.
General design of a water heat accumulator. Applied construction materials
Structurally, a water heat accumulator is, as a rule, a welded or brazed metal container (tank), placed inside the same metal casing of a larger volume. The intermediate space between the outer walls of the tank and the inner walls of the casing is filled with heat insulating material. The heat storage tank can be completed with the necessary set of pipeline fittings (nozzles / flanges, taps) and instrumentation (thermometer, manometer).
The material for the manufacture of a water tank of a heat accumulator, depending on its volume and scope, can be:
- carbon steel with a protective anti-corrosion coating (painted, enameled, galvanized);
- high-alloy (stainless) steel;
- aluminum (including anodized) and its alloys;
- copper and its alloys.
The outer casing of the heat accumulator is usually made of different materials, depending on the application. It can be imitation leather of various colors, painted carbon steel (or galvanized steel), thin sheets of aluminum or stainless steel; plastic can be used in small-sized household items. It can be welded, riveted, folded, collapsible on threaded connections. A variety of foamed polymeric materials, mineral wool can act as a heat insulator.
Parameters for selecting a heat accumulator for hot (or ice) water
Despite the relative technical simplicity of water heat accumulators, their selection for a specific water supply system must be made according to a number of clear technical parameters. The defining parameters for the selection of a capacitive heat accumulator are:
- productivity of the water heating (or cooling) system, cubic meters / hour;
- time schedule for the heating (cooling) system;
- average consumption of hot water (or refrigerant), peak values of the heat carrier consumption, in cubic meters / hour.
Based on the ratio of the performance of the heating system, the temporal irregularity of its operation, the peak values of the coolant flow rate and its average flow rate over a time cycle (for example, per day), the volume of the heat storage tank is selected. Moreover, its volume must be at least:
the volume of the flow rate of the coolant for the time cycle - for systems with cyclic heating (or cooling) of the coolant;
peak values of the heat carrier consumption - for systems with continuous heating (cooling) of the heat carrier.
Other important technical parameters for the selection of a capacitive heat accumulator are:
- working and maximum permissible temperature of the coolant;
- operating and maximum allowable pressure in the system;
- the nature and chemical composition (aggressiveness) of the coolant;
- the efficiency of the heat-insulating casing, expressed through the coefficient of thermal conductivity of the heat-insulator, its thickness, in total - through the power of heat loss per unit area.
Storage tanks from OPEKS
In the process of creating its own tanks - heat accumulators, OPEKS Energosystems relies on all its many years of experience and a powerful production base, acquired in the interests of producing the highest quality heat exchange equipment on the domestic market. Thanks to these achievements, OPEKS Energosystems manufactures a wide range of capacitive heat accumulators - durable, completely sealed, energy efficient (with minimal specific heat loss) with the OPEKS-2 marking, with the following parameters and characteristics:
- industrial (30,000 - 60,000 liters), household (1,000 - 5,000 liters) and household (100 - 800 liters) purposes;
- made of carbon, stainless, enameled steel;
- for use in plumbing systems for various purposes: water heating, hot water supply, cold supply, with alternative energy sources.
Made at the same impeccable technological level as proprietary heat exchange equipment, TM OPEKS heat accumulators show themselves only from the best side in any operating conditions, are characterized by high stability of technical characteristics, compliance with and even exceeding the standard service life.